Case Study A.2: Pozzuoli-Solfatara-Astroni

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Area Workgroup Naples 2A: Pozzuoli-Solfatara-Astroni
Place Naples
Country Italy
Topics Coastal Line Study, Understanding Coastal Landscapes, Evaluation and Assessment for Coastal Landscapes Integrated Planning and Design for Costal Landscapes
Author(s) Cristina Irimia, Geanina Fânaru, Valentina Pignata, Vincenzo Sasso, Sin Yee Ho, Ivan Voskian
Pozzuoli im Abendlicht.JPG


The first key word of our study area is heritage: the territory of Pozzuoli is extremely rich in regards to the historical and cultural heritage.

The second key word is resources: the resources of the territory and the sea. The territory of Pozzuoli is geologically and morphologically very varied and, therefore, complex. Its weaknesses have always represented also a resource and, if properly exploited, can represent great potential. Just the sea, by itself, represents a great resource; Pozzuoli was an international trade center of great importance in Antiquity. The Gulf of Pozzuoli has a strategic role as it can connect the Phlegraean inland area with the rest of the Metropolitan City of Naples and with the Phlegraean islands.

The third key word is energy. What appears evident when studying this area is its latent energy; an energy that, if channeled into a precise program of interventions, can be transformed into a strength and an opportunity for development. Our hypothesis for this area is the enhancement of local identities and their transformation into development opportunities - above all, in regards to tourism.

Location and scope

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A Landscape System Analysis

A.1 Landscape layers and their system context

Geomorphology, landscape units and coastal typology

The coast of Pozzuoli is characterized by the presence of a large gulf that takes its name from the city itself. It is within the wider Gulf of Naples. The Gulf of Pozzuoli winds between Capo Miseno and Capo Posillipo for about 6 km. The main phenomenon that affects the gulf is bradyseism. The earthquake of 1980 resulted in the displacement of the port 50 meters ahead of its original location. Because of this, archaeological remains from the Roman period have become visible on the seabed.

Since 2008, in the center of the Gulf, at 100 meters depth, there is a system for marine volcanic monitoring called “CUMAS” (Wired diver module for the acquisition of seismological data), monitored by the Vesuvius Observatory. According to ISPRA (Higher Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) the typology of the Pozzuoli coast falls into the category “River plain”, that is a “normal alluvial plain, with a very delicate lower profile”. Because of the discharges, following the surveys carried out by the Arpac (Regional Agency for the Protection of Campania), stretches of sea are subject to prohibition of bathing and the remaining marine-coastal areas are defined as ‘at risk’ for the health of the bathers due to lack of controls and analysis. The Consortium “Costa dei Campi Flegrei CVB” deals with enhancing the cultural, archaeological, naturalistic and marine heritage; promoting tourism, scientific research and initiatives to spread the history of the place and the literary, archaeological and artistic culture.

Land use

The Greeks established a colony here and named it Dicaearchia. They also named the volcanic area - the Phlegraen Fields means 'Fiery Fields'. The Romans came in 194 BC and gave the colony the name of Puteoli. The port became a focus and the settlement grew into the most important trading center of the Mediterranean Sea. Puteoli flourished, in part because of the fertile soil and the thermal water. The fall of the Roman Empire brought with it decline in the region. In more recent times, the now Pozzuoli is home to the Italian Air Force Academy (since 1946). From 1982 to 1984 the town experienced bradyseim activity, damaging thousands of buildings and making 36 000 people leave.

Agnano is a suburb of Naples, popular since the time of the Greeks and Romans for the hot sulphurous springs. Ruins of ancient thermal baths from the Greek period are still visible. The town and the hippodrome stand now where a lake formed in the Middle Ages, later drained.

Solar panels are used for the production of renewable energy in the region. The thermal water and the Pozzuoli Red (a pigment obtained from iron ore) are natural resources specific to the area.

Over time, the process of urbanization started changing the landscape: part of the lands used for agriculture are now dedicated to individual and collective living. The main driving forces when it comes to land use are both negative (the migration from South to North, the rather low living standards) and positive (the proximity to Naples, the port, the archaeological, cultural and natural heritage).

The predominant land uses are: agrarian lands (because the soil is fertile; agriculture has been a custom use of land since the colonisations of the Greeks and Romans), residential (expansion using the agrarian lands) and industry and storage (for food production and the car industry). The uses that are going to predominate in the future: agriculture (the economy of the region depends on this) and residential (this zone is going to expand due to the process of urbanization and influenced by tertiary services being more present). The predominant uses won't change in the future, but the amount of land they use will.

The public transport infrastructure consists of two train lines and one metro line. They connect Pozzuoli to Naples. The public transport system serves the coast general area, but not much of the inland. The road system is well represented and most areas are reachable by car. The pedestrian streets are narrow (this area was one of the first settlements to develop a complex road system). Expanding the transport network would imply extensive work.

Green/blue infrastructure

The green areas are well represented by the Mediterranean flora and rich fauna. The Vesuvius National Park includes Mount Somma (from which the volcanic cone of Mount Vesuvius formed) and contains two Sites of community importance, on which a Special Protection Area overlaps.

The Phlegraean Fields is a large volcanic area with 24 craters and volcanic edifices. Solfatara is the most interesting volcano, formed from 40 ancient volcanoes. It is an active volcanic crater with effusive gaseous manifestations, which emit sulfur through small mud volcanoes ("solfo" is Italian for "sulfur").

Inland, the "blue" is present in the Astroni Natural Craters Reserve (another Special Protection Area), which is surrounded by forest and presents three lakes: Lago Grande, Cofaniello Piccolo and Cofaniello Grande. We can observe here typical vegetation for wetlands. The Gaiola Underwater Park is a marine area of 42 hectares in the Gulf of Naples. Here we find flora and fauna typical of the Mediterranean Sea. Thus, the study area presents a strong touristic and economic development potential.

All the elements of the potential green+blue infrastructure network have a strong identity and a distinct character for the residents, especially since the residential zone began expanding, oftentimes bringing these elements closer to the people. The relief forms a lot of small "pockets" throughout the urban fabric, which acquire different identities for each resident, depending on the connection they have with that specific place (residing, travelling through, observing from a distance).

The aforementioned elements are connected visually (the height differences offer vantage points for the whole landscape, giving a unique character ti the whole area) and throught the road network, but not by the public transport network. The anthropic landscape doesn't offer any elements (landmarks, barriers) which might make connections between the natural elements taken into consideration. These natural elements are included in protected areas, making the changes that might occur to them highly controlled and carefully planned. Global warming and natural disasters are factors that can drastically impact the landscape.

Actors and stakeholders

The study area is under the administration of the municipality of Pozzuoli. As in every region, we find the municipal urban plan (PUC), which is a management tool of the Italian municipal territory, composed of cartographic and normative documents (urban legislation) that regulate the management of urban and territorial transformation activities of the pertinent municipality. There are many institutions that operate in the area. The authorities of the basin work for the soil, lakes and sea shores; Civil Protection, for the countless seismic activities; the superintendence of cultural heritage is concerned with bearing all the assets that belong to our history and to the heritage of humanity.

Power map A2.jpgPower map

Sacred spaces and heritage

Many places and elements from the Pozzuoli territory hold cultural value and symbolic meaning.

- Campi Flegrei are an area situated in the north-west of Naples, which became a Regional Park in 2003. The name derives from the Greek phlegraio, which means “burning”. In fact it is a large caldera in a quiescent state. The wealth of archaeological sites contributes to the charm of the area.

- Astroni Crater State Nature Reserve is one of the largest craters in the Campi Flegrei area. It is crossed by natural paths with observatories for birds. During the reign of the Bourbons it was a real hunting site.

- Solfatara is an ancient volcanic crater still active, but in a quiescent state. It preserves an activity of fumaroles of sulfur dioxide and it is a safety valve, since it allows the pressure of the underground gases to remain constant.

- Not far from the Flavian Amphitheater there is an Archaeological Park never open to the public. It includes a road, built by the Greeks, a rustic villa and a sanctuary. Along the sides of the road, sepulchral areas were found; the main ones are in via Vicinale Celle and in the area of San Vito.

- The Necropolis of Via Celle dates back to the 1st century AD. It stands along the stretch of the Consularis Puteolis-Capuam street. The area preserves 14 mausoleums, the so-called columbaria (sg. columbarium - a place used for the storage of cinerary urns).

- The Necropolis of San Vito rises as well along the Consularis Puteolis-Capuam street. The buildings (the last six discovered during recent excavations) are characterized by an underground chamber on whose walls there are rows of niches for urns. Two of the buildings are in the "columbarium" style.

- The Flavian Amphitheater is the only fully preserved amphitheater. It recalls the Colosseum when it comes to the plan and materials. It hosted shows and fights full of scenography. Its facade included three orders of overlapping arches. The cavea was divided into three tiers of terraces.

- The Villa Avellino Park was built in the 1500s by the Collona di Stigliano princes. The citrus grove, a Roman cryptoporticus, a covered gallery and a cistern called Centocamerelle are preserved. The pool consists of two orders of parallel rooms.

- In the '500s Puteolans built the Sanctuary of San Gennaro alla Solfatara. In the side chapels there are two relics: the stone on which San Gennaro was beheaded (on which, according to tradition, the black blood stains turn red in the days preceding the anniversary of his death, on 19 September) and the bust of the saint (to which many miracles are attributed).

- In the Church of Santa Maria della Consolazione King Ferdinand the 2nd and Queen Maria Teresa venerated a painting of the Madonna to protect her pregnancy. Since then, pregnant women began to ask the Madonna for a safe pregnancy.

- The Church of Purificazione dates back to the 18th century and represents a place of culture. In it you can admire the remains of a crypt and ancient drainers.

- The Church of Raffaele Arcangelo is a small “baroque jewel” in the heart of the city of Pozzuoli. This small church is absolutely unique because it is baroque, but designed with classical rules. Inside there are numerous sculptural and pictorial works.

The "Monumento ai Caduti sul Lavoro" was inaugurated in 1980. On a stone pedestal, there is a sculpture made of iron. It recalls the fallen in the primary, secondary and tertiary sector.

Visual appearance and landscape narrative

First dated fresco - 1st century - reflecting the nature of our study area is to be found in Stabiae, in the Magna Graecia region overlooking the Gulf of Naples, which is shaped by the eruption of M. Vesuvius in 79 AD. The drawing of Gulf of Baiae near Pozzuoli represents the built structure to be found along the coastal area. The building represents the Aragonese Castle and a a Roman bath, which used to be mistaken for a temple of Venus.

A landscape painter from Brandenburg, whose works were mostly done in Italy, drew the Gulf of Pozzuoli from Solfatara. Solfatara is a shallow volcanic crater forming a part of the Phlegraean Fields. The 20 years old Januarius became the bishop, and later the patron saint of Naples. This iconic character is shown in a copy of the lost original by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. The Procession of Saint Janvier to Naples painting by Antoine Jean Baptiste Thomas reflects the dominance and the tragedy of the volcanic eruption in 79 AD.

The study area was not only represented in drawings, but by literature such as De Balneis Puteolanis, a poem describing various thermal baths in Campi Flegrei. Furthermore, it mentions that Sulla, the Roman Dictator, owned a country villa in the region, where Paul the Apostle arrived on his way to Rome. From all these different types of documentations dating since the time of the Roman Empire, we can tell that this charismatic and inspirational piece of landscape is important in both natural and anthropogenic histories of the region.

A.2 Summary of your landscape system analysis and your development Targets

United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals form a strategy with the purpose of shaping a better world, driven by sustenability, and aim for certain changes until 2030. In the study area, some of these goals are currently at risk.

Goal 8. Decent work and economic growth: the area suffers from a declining economy, not having yet used the full potential of its position on the coast and the built, cultural and natural heritage. The economy is based on agriculture (where the residential zones are expanding in the detriment of the agrarian lands) and tourism (which, given its seasonal character, creates instability on the job market).

Goal 11. Sustainable cities and communities: with the steady, but uncontrolled expansion of urbanization, the current infrastructures serving the area and the methods implemented until now (not always alligned with the vision of a sustainable future) are becoming inadequate, not being able to fully support the growth of the area. Several issues require special attention, such as the management of waste, rising levels of pollution, the public transport system, the lack of green spaces and of fully developed cultural hubs and the protection of the heritage.

Goal 13. Climate change: Italy has ratified the Paris Agreement in November 2016, agreeing to work on limiting the global temperature rise. There is still need of alignment of the Paris Agreement goals with national policies and local strategies and mechanisms, including raising awareness regarding the effects that human activity have on climate and the ways in which something can be done, from invididual to public administration.

Goal 14. Life below water: given of how much life in the area is impacted by the position on the coast, policies and regulations need to have a more in depth approach in regards to the deterioration of coastal waters. The marine and coastal ecosystems need to be protected to avoid adverse impacts, such as a negative effect on biodiversity. Practices such as illegal fishing, which can cause overfishing, need to come to an end. More of the coastal areas should be included in conservation programs.

Goal 15. Life on land: a significant percentage of the area consists of agrarian lands. Also, in the urbanized areas, the industry is expanding. Thus, a development strategy in the area needs to focus on restoring the degraded land and soil, striving for a sustainable use and management of the natural resources. The valuable natural elements in the area are protected, being included in reserves and regional parks.

The IF NOT scenario depicts what would happen if nothing is done in the area - rising levels of pollution, the uncontrolled expansion of urbanization coupled with a failing economy, making people leave the area in search of work, resulting in a partly deserted area, without a structure.

A.3 Theory reflection

International policy: United Nations. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a step forward to advance global sustainable development to become embedded in development and environmental thinking. The 17 ambitious goals or targets range from fighting poverty, to creating global tie-up to achieve these goals.

A SDGs assessment has examined countries' average performance based on SDGs and ranked them. This study made evident that the SDGs underperformed on sustainability. Given that SDGs are guiding tools for future developments, what makes it blunder?

In 2014 and 2015, the number of SDGs almost duplicated itself form 8 to 17; this move was regarded as a fruitless approach. Despite the storylines and narratives used to move both public and donors, it was hard for both parties to focus attention on any of the goals or bounce off the 169 targets. Achieving these targets in undeveloped countries will without any doubts require vast amount of money; the lack of financial planning on attaining objectives is a shortcomming. On the other hand, with this grow in number, UN has focused and went more in-depth to actual problems faced or endangered by reckless human activities.

In many countries now, topics like climate change are "fake news", however occurances like disasters such as an earthquake could pose a great threat on sustainability and development.

A world player and a member of the UN has dropped off the UNFCCC - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

What's important in the Phlegraean Fields is its heritage and its unique identity formed throughout the history. Despite its importance to societies and its great potential to contribute to social and environmental goals, these points were heretofore absent from the SD debate. To demonstrate the seriousness of this, it can be pointed out that 31 natural and cultural World Heritage sites in 29 countries are increasingly vulnerable to the effects of climate change.

A well-maintained heritage agenda is crucial in addressing risks related to natural and human-made disasters, not to mention the economic advantages it brings to its representing country.

European policy: European Commission. Natura 2000

Natura 2000 sites have been designated to protect areas of crucial importance for species or habitat types because they are endangered, vulnerable, rare or endemic. There are around 2000 species and 230 habitat types of which sites need to be designated as Natura 2000 sites.

Nature reserves, national parks or other nationally or regionally protected sites are established exclusively under national or regional law, which can change in every country. Natura 2000 sites are selected with the aim of ensuring the long-term survival of species and habitats protected under the Birds and the Habitats Directive. EU Member States are required to designate the ‘most suitable territories’.

Natura 2000 sites include different types of ecosystems: terrestrial, freshwater and marine. Each of them can include different habitats. For instance marine area is almost 6%, forest ecosystems represent about 50% and the agro-ecosystems cover about 40%.

The Natura 2000 network includes over 27,000 sites covering a total surface of about 1,150,000 km2. The Natura 2000 barometer regularly updates the information about the number of sites and surface covered in every country and at EU level.

Sites of Community Importance (SCIs), Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), and Special Protection Areas (SPAs) are all collectively referred to as Natura 2000 sites. SPAs have been designated under the Birds Directive, while SCIs and SACs concern the same site and are sites designated under the Habitats Directive. Cratere degli Astroni is a SPA. Stazioni di Cyanidium caldarium di Pozzuoli is included in SCI, SAC and SPA.

National policy: Diesel Pollution

With the introduction of the new European standards RDE (Real Driving Emissions), a tightening was introduced that aims at a substantial block for diesel cars from 2020.

The diesel war has recently come to Italy too. The abolition of diesel in Italy has, theoretically, a date already set: 2024.

In Milan the Euro 3 diesel car lock is valid. Added to this is the fact that the permanent block of diesel cars will start from February 25, 2019.

The fight against diesel engines sees Italy as the leading exponent in Virginia Raggi. The mayor of Rome, in fact, at the "C40 Women 4 Climate" summit in Mexico City, surprisingly stated that the capital will ban diesel cars from entering the city center right from 2024 to effectively break down the pollution levels.

A.4 References;aggregationId=101&albumid=101&filter=7&ff=377895807,+pozzuoli&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjOqaWu47PhAhWIkhQKHS1jAMsQ_AUIDygC&biw=1478&bih=728#imgrc=NPK6vKp7cMJV9M:,+pozzuoli&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjW1NL43bPhAhWADmMBHZc3CMYQ_AUIDygC&biw=1478&bih=728&dpr=1.25#imgrc=gD2NkVPSilrVJM:

Phase B: Landscape Evaluation and Assessment

B.1 Assessment Strategy

The landscape analysis revealed a case study area with a rich history and a complex identity - from the coast, busy in the summer and thrumming with activity, to the inland, characterized by the height differences, the pockets of urban fabric and the Natura 2000 sites. The area, while filled with potential (natural and cultural heritage), doesn’t function properly in its entirety, due to connectivity issues and the results of an uncontrolled process of urbanization.

Thus, the desired future of the area is described by goals which seek to create cohesion in all aspects, such as urban morphology, zoning and transport. They are, as follows:

  • creating a blue/green infrastructure;
  • promoting tourism;
  • sustainable local economy;
  • urban development and interventions unfolding in a controlled manner, in accordance with the valuable elements of the existing urban image;
  • improving the relationship between the coast and inland, by addressing issues such as accessibility and a rational distribution of services;
  • mitigating the negative effects of pollution and enhancing the ecosystem services.

In order to assess the area, the following three elements have been mapped:

  • land use, with the careful classification of all the zones, with the purpose of having a clear image in regards to the urban sprawl and to the juxtaposition and relations between different zones of varying grades of compatibility; we used the Urban Atlas tool;
  • ecosystem services, because of the overwhelming importance of the benefits nature provides and with the intention of identifying weaknesses and risks pertaining to the ecosystems; for this, we turned to the ecosystem services assessment guidelines;
  • accessibility in connection with green areas and cultural heritage, as they are valuable both to tourism and to the shaping of a green/blue infrastructure; for this step, we found to be useful sections of the guide for the BlueHealth Assessment Tool.

B.2 Mapping

B.3 Problem definition and priority setting

Mapping the land use, ecosystem services and accessibility gives a complex image of the study area.

  • Elements of potential are seen in the green areas, both protected (Natura 2000 sites) and outside of the protection limits; positive aspects comprise the visual impact, addition to the ecosystems present in the area and the possibility of being part of a well-structured green/blue infrastructure. A commercial and cultural core has the potential to form along the coast, since a lot of services are already clustered here. The road system is well developed, providing access to all the residential zones and to the water.
  • The study area faces problems regarding the urban fabric when it comes to land reserves, small in area and dwindling due to the urban sprawl, and to the morphology. The cultural services of the ecosystems are generally not developed or promoted. The connection between coast and the green areas of the inland is not very strong or well defined.


- Inadequate and insufficient connections;

- Degradation of the coastal strip;

- Disinterest for the promotion of the area and for activities related to tourism.


- Redevelopment of the coastal strip, carrying out chemical analyzes and regular water checks for a sudden restoration of the seaside activity and structuring a commercial core, with services and activities for a high economic status all year round;

- Redevelopment of archaeological sites and areas of interest:

    * Opening to the public of the Archaeological Park of the via Puteolis-Capuam;
    * Enhancement of areas of archaeological, historical, cultural and architectural interest;

- Promotion, in Italy and abroad, of the archaeological, historical, cultural, architectural and literary heritage;

- Creation of a network of virtual connections between the places of interest;

- Strengthening of connections with neighboring areas and with small and large neighboring urban centers;

- Preparation of tourist-accommodation areas and equipment.

B.4 Theory reflection

  • For the assessment and evaluation of the landscape, we used three tools/methods:

The Urban Atlas, a mapping tool with guidelines which describe and classify the land by zones, used at EU level;

The Ecosystem Services, which entail the essential goods and services that ecosystems provide for the human well-being;

The BlueHealth environmental assessment tool, which refers mainly to blue spaces and has a well structured question based method of approaching the landscape.

Urban Atlas

Source: Mapping Guide for a European Urban Atlas

"Urban Atlas" is a mapping product which offers a high-resolution land use map of urban areas. It is adapted to European needs. The guidelines describe the nomenclature of this digital thematic map. Also, they describe the mapping units used, such as: artificial surfaces (including urban fabric; industrial, commercial, public, military, private and transport units; road and rail network and associated land; port areas); agricultural, semi-natural and wetland areas; forest; water.

Ecosystem services

Source: Mapping of Ecosystem Services, edited by Benjamin Burkhard and Joachim Maes

Ecosystem services represent major contributions to human well-being and can be construed into a major tool for policy and decision making at various scales. They represent the flow of material, energy and information from ecosystems to society. They depend on biodiversity, being founded on complex schemes of ecological interactions with very high mutual interdependencies.

Ecosystem services can guide and support the management of natural resources, ecosystems and socio-ecological systems. They provide reasons for protection and sustainable management of ecosystems.

Cultural ecosystem services bind elements between social and ecological concepts and provide non-material benefits. They are nature's intangible benefits related to human perceptions, attitudes and beliefs. They are not readily transferable from one place to other environments, thus making them all the more valuable.

Ecosystem services mapping has numerous possible applications, including bringing them into practical application and raising awareness about different ecosystem goods and services. Maps can help uncover risks for ecosystems' health and harmful impacts on a landscape. Maps are useful for planning and decision-making processes. Outcomes of ecosystem services approach maps can be used to identify areas that need to be safe-guarded, enhanced or developed.

The BlueHealth environmental assessment tool

The BlueHealth environmental assessment tool (BEAT) is used for evaluating social, physical and ecological aspects of any type of space featuring water, even when the only interaction is done indirectly (for example, by viewing it). The tool has two versions, one for experts and one for communities, both designed to identify opportunities of connecting to blue spaces, as well as any well-being benefits offered.

BEAT can be used to collect data for monitoring purposes, as a starting point in the decision making process regarding planning or for evaluating opinions of the users of a particular site.

BEAT takes the form of a survey. The guidelines explain the method of conducting the survey and what each step entails, from recording location and the visual quality of the site to the assessment of the ecosystems present in the area.

Limitations: - lack of information in regards to citizens’ opinions and way of living;

Insights: - the wide range of assessment tools comes with a stringent need of a in depth understanding of their methodology, purpose and appropriate time of use; - accessible to both experts and communities; - the focus of these tools/methods shows the current trends of interest (such as environmental conservation and protection).

B.5 References

  • Guidelines for Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment. Routledge

Phase C – Strategy and Master Plan

C.1 Goal Setting

Strategic planning objectives:

Main objective:

1. Creating links between the coast and the valuable historic and natural sites through public space (squares, alleys, streets) by means of alignment vegetation, places to sit, a cycling path etc;

Secondary objectives:

2. Strong connectivity with the adjacent territories (similar sized towns to the West, with similar natural and economical characteristics; Naples to the East);

3. Valorification of historical sites;

4. Valorification of natural heritage sites;

– these three objectives link to Goal 11. Sustainable cities and communities, because they relate to prolonged use and preservation of existing elements and the development of infrastructures with the purpose of creating stability.

5. Reduced negative impact of small-scale processes that affect the area, such as pollution and coastal erosion

– this objective links to Goal 13. Climate change and Goal 14. Life below water, as it speaks of controlling negative effects of man-made and natural actions and protecting the climate.

6. Sustainable economic development (taking into consideration tourism and urbanization)

– this objective links to Goal 8. Decent work and economic growth and Goal 15. Life of land, as it concerns the economy and the rational and efficient use of resources.

C.2 Spatial Strategy and Transect

Pozzuoli: where history meets land and sea


In 10 to 15 years from now, the Pozzuoli region has developed as a touristic hub, balancing in a cohesive manner all the functional zoning. The region is growing as a whole, integrating the natural and built elements and the social aspect of the community. The area is accessible due to a better connectivity by public transport with the adjacent territories. The natural heritage sites have been connected to the coast through a green route made out of public spaces and streets, carefully designed for pedestrian needs. This route includes historical sites as well, creating a comprehensive system.

C.3 From Theory of Change to Implementation

  • The public debate (in French débat public) is in France a phase of the procedure for the development of large organizational or infrastructure projects, which allows citizens to inform themselves and to express their point of view on the iterations and the consequences of the projects.
  • The evaluation of public policies is a research and professional practice activity (cognitive function) aimed at learning from experience by formulating recommendations for change (instrumental function) and for expressing empirically founded judgments (regulatory function) on designs, processes, the results, the effects of public policies. The evaluation of public policies is an area of public policy analysis.

C.4 References

  • Lisa Diedrich, Gini Lee, Julian Raxworthy, Transects: Developing an experience-based methodology for design education and design research, 2012

D. Process Reflection

Outcomes of the study:

  • understanding of the characteristics of the coastal typology;
  • creating a blue/green infrastructure when the “green” areas are protected sites;
  • approaching tourism from a sustainable point of view.


  • lack of information on specific sites’ status and initiatives;
  • communities and lifestyle; quality of life.

Learnt from each other:

  • how to communicate and collaborate with people coming from related fields.

Next time:

  • better time management and distribution of tasks.