Case Study B.1: Rione Terra-Potus Julius
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Pozzuoli is one of the most relevant site in Naples metropolitan area. The Coast is rich of assets of cultural interest, starting from the new area recently built and still in requalification phase of Rione Terra.This quarter extended to the dock of Pozzuoli is developing as a new economic and touristic source thanks to geology, history, archeology, myths and its panormans of great impact.
Location and scope
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A Landscape System Analysis
A.1 Landscape layers and their system context
Geomorphology, landscape units and coastal typology
- The Campi Flegrei district is an active volcanic area that covers about 200 km2 of the coastal zone of SW Italy, a large part of which develops off the Gulf of Naples, and is characterized by at least one large caldera collapse structure. The caldera is represented by a quasi-circular area of ∼8 km in diameter in the central sector of the Campi Flegrei, including the Pozzuoli inland area and Pozzuoli Bay.
As seen in the map, the basic land uses are: ( urban fabric; residential and industrial, agriculture and forests). it is classified as a high naturalistic landscape potential, so some parts of it is national and regional protected areas. along the coast there are higher temperatures allow the growth of Mediterranean scrub with potential for evergreen sclerophylle. vines and fruits are the 2 main cultivations and the agriculture production has a good quality. there are also old hydraulic systems and techniques that are still visible in the terraced vine yards. Also the area has witnessed heavy urbanization after world war II. so there have been two patterns: from 1900 till 1954 only 10% of the land had been urbanized while from 1954 till 1998 it has doubled five times of the urbanized area with drastic decrease in agriculture. as well as there have been new developments to provide housing to displaced people due to volcanic emergence and that resulted in further soil consume. in the last two centuries the area has seen an important growth in industrial activities initially with heavy industrial plants and later with high tech production. after world war II the tourism sector has been overwhelmed by the industrial activity. in the 20 to 25 years there have been dismissal and dismantle of the heavy industrial activity . overall it is a strategic location as well and a coastal line that needs to be reconsidered.
Blue and Green infrastructures provides planners, developers and citizens with opportunities to rethink their relationships with the environment. Due to the strong presence of these in the territory, in the study area these represent a potential resource for the development of sustainable economies and tourism.
- The Gauro mountain represents the highest volcanic building in the Phlegrean area. The structure is in yellow tuff, in fact, there are some tuff caves now closed. It is in a central position respect to the regional park of the Phlegrean fields. Its structure is bounded by the peaks of Monte Barbaro and Monte Sant'Angelo and is degraded due to atmospheric agents. The mountain is also recognizable from the port of Pozzuoli.
- The port of Pozzuoli has been of great importance since the ancient Greeks. It over the last two thousand years has had several changes due to alterations in the coastline, because of bradyseism. Originally the port was ahead of the current one, while in 1200 the sea reached the area where today it is the Cumana. A new raising is gradually pushing the shoreline away.Many boats leave from the port of Pozzuoli to devote themselves to fishing which is a very important resource for the Phlegraean town.
The Natura 2000 network, provides the enhancement and protection of green spaces, as a habitat of flora and fauna characteristic of the Phlegrean territory, but also because they represent green lungs in an area with a high rate of urbanization. The Mount Gauro,the underwater archaeological reserve of Baia and the Pozzuoli coast represent a uniqueness in the landscape and a place that increases the healthiness of citizens, according to the PUC of Pozzuoli of 2016.The restitution of the Phlegrean coast to the citizens and the protection of marine biodiversity, would lead a strong increase in tourism and economic activities, as well as a greater awareness of the users.
Actors and stakeholders
- The archaeological sit Rione Terra is run by the Municipality of Pozzuoli. In the 90s, a restoration project was initiated and a first section, about half of Rione, now has buildings which have been completely saved and restored. The area is known for its naturalistic, landscape, cultural and archaeological uniqueness. Also, there are some other people, who helps to improve the area, such as locals, business man, investors, and even tourists.
Sacred spaces and heritage
Visual appearance and landscape narrative
- Over the time, for many painters and artists Rione Terra represented a great scenario for their works. Perhaps, the history had an important role that appealed many masters of the beautiful arts, from the Roman colony that dates since 194 BC and Greek influences, to the reconstruction of a new city in the last 50 years. The landscape and natural elements of Rione Terra have been caught in several paintings such as the Frantz Loudwig Castle-Pozzuoli by Gabriele Smargiassi and Rione Terra a Pozzouli by Consalvo Carrelli, both of them realized in the 19th century. In these works we can see the relation between water and cliffs and also the layers of the natural environment. In the background, even with its positions is far from the principal settlement, they have marked the horizon line with the silhouette of Vesuvius Vulcano that seems to have a big impact on the global image.
- Furthermore, Rione Terra and her surroundings have represented the filming location for a number of movies and documentaries. One of them, The Vesuvians (italian: I vesuviani), was directed by Mario Martone in 1997 and tells the story of a fisherman living in Rione Terra. The harbor, the old streets, the waves breaking on the shore as well as the Vesuvio volcano were often chosen as a background for the movie scenes. Another movie that captures the coastal landscape of Pozzuoli isThe man from the U.N.C.L.E., directed by Guy Ritchie in 2015.
A.2 Summary of you landscape system analysis and your development Targets
- Landscape system analysis-DPSI(R) Model
The value of Rione Terra is due to the large number of historic buildings, the coastal landscape and the natural heritage, which recall a great tourism. Other aspects, however, risk damaging the territory such as an uncontrolled growth, the pollution, putting some 2030 Agenda golas at risk: 9.innovation and infrastructure,the city is not well connected everywhere by public transport; 11.Sustainable Cities and Communities,due to chaotic urbanization and unsustainable growth that increase pollution and puts the historical heritage of the district at risk; 14.Life Below Water,Waters are dirty, there is a lot of pollution and crime that help destroy biodiversity; All of those put the 15.Life on Land point also at risk!
- Landscape hypothesis
Compared to the analysis, our hypothesis is to limit the negative externalities of the territory such as uncontrolled growth, the degradation of both historical and landscape heritage, improving them. we need to increase transport to make it easier for tourists to visit the area, we must clean the waters, protect the natural heritage and safeguard the culture of the place. In summary our hypotheses are to redevelop and reuse the archaeological industry, increase the pedestrian path and improve public transport, clean up natural areas for blue and green infrastructures for tourist growth.
A.3 Theory reflection
- On an international scale, Sustainable Development Goals aim to achieve a better and sustainable future by 2030. Besides social aspects, the agenda contains a number of 17 goals that approach subjects like clean water and sanitation, climate action, life under water, life on land as well as sustainable cities and communities. Thereby, taking into account its problems and characteristics, Rione Terra can benefit from the adoption of this policy. Nevertheless, the SDG can not be considered complete because it neglects several aspects like the historical heritage, natural heritage, cultural landscape and biodiversity.
- On the European territory 18% of the land area and 6% of its marine is part of Natura 2000. This is a network of core breeding and resting sites for rare and threatened species, and some rare natural habitat types which are protected in their own right. The aim of the network is to ensure the long-term survival of Europe's most valuable and threatened species and habitats, listed under both the Birds Directive and the Habitats Directive. However, for our area in Rione-Terra we should use this lever by ensuring that the sites are managed in a sustainable manner, both ecologically and economically and largely centered on people working with nature rather than against it.
- Article 10 of Law No. 137 of July 6, 2002 is an important National document who claims that Italian cultural heritage contribute to preserving the memory of the national community and its territory and to promote the development of culture. The outstanding value of Rione Terra is due to the large number of historic buildings and other heritage assets, as well as the coastal landscape and natural heritage. For this reason, this law may represent an opportunity to protect certain identity elements of the studied area.
Phase B: Landscape Evaluation and Assessment
B.1 Assessment Strategy
Following the previous phase of landscape system analysis, a series of hypotheses were identified regarding the main factors influencing the studied area. The Rione Terra area has several issues highlighted also in the DPSIR analysis. Some of the most important are those that exert a negative impact on the landscape such as the uncontrolled growth, the degradation of both historical and natural heritage and the lack of connectivity.
Therefore, based on the major identified problems and hypothesis, the assessment strategy proposes a number of goals that will lead to better understanding of the weaknesses and threats, to a possible solution to combat them and finally to the examination of the coastal landscape value:
- Protect, preserve, rehabilitate and increase the attractiveness of the historic built heritage and natural heritage, intensify the relationships between them
- Create a better infrastructure in order to obtain a better general connectivity
- Increase the attractiveness of the harbour area
- Minimize water pollution and the negative effects generated by tourism
- Shape a non-polluting functional profile along the water bank
- Functional conversion of industrial areas
- Strengthen the relationship between volcanic zones and water
- Have a planned sustainable urban development and renewal
Nonetheless, to develop the whole area, we must think of its inhabitants, but also of tourists who want to see the riches of Rionne-Tera-Pozzuoli. In other words, we need to develop a strategy based on the concept of sustainable development, a development that enhances identitary elements of our site.
Natural, built and cultural heritage
Flora and fauna
Monte Gauro is a place where you can recognize the typical plants that characterize the Mediterranean maquis. Among the numerous plants, the following have been recognized: - arboreal plants: the Corbezzolo, the Leccio, the Neapolitan Pino, the Orniello, the Roverella; -shrubbery: the Alaterno, the Erica arborea, the Fillirea, the Broom of the charcoal burners, the Lentisco (= wild pistachio), the Myrtle; -herbaceous plants with a low trunk: the Mediterranean poodle, the cistus, the feline kite, the senecio, the tagliamani. Single specimens of wild asparagus and wild fennel have been found. On Mount Gauro there are also some trees planted for utilitarian purposes: - Utility plants: the Carob, the Fig tree and the Pomegranate, the Chestnut. -Botanical pollution - Finally, there are some non-endemic plants, planted in recent times without respecting the local flora. These are eucalyptus plants. In these areas but especially in the Regional Park of the Phlegraean Fields we can find the following animals: the fox, the weasel and the stone marten. Sporadic presence of hares and rabbits; Migratory birds find a resting place in the area. Among the species we include: kestrel, oriole, cormorant, grebe, ferruginous duck, woodcock, stiff neck. The water rail (the only place in the province of Naples) and of the peregrine falcon is emphasized. With the clearing of the sky Pozzuoli has given so many emotions to those who fish from the port, here there are above all sea bass but in summer also some bream participates in their game.
B.3 Problem definition and priority setting
- Indusrial barrier
- Freeway can be a problem for physicalconnection ofthe natural elements
- Historical center city with threatened monuments (unused/high degradation)
- Ancient roman road connection axis between heritage areas
- Potential points of perspectivetowards major landscape
- Pedestrian connections
- Leisure activities
Priorities and targets
We have identified as objectives and design themes:
- The CONNECTIONS, not only with the neighboring cities, but also between the archaeological areas and the numerous points of interest of the Rione Terra: the target is to highlight the Roman archeology, the Roman paths, to create a line that can relate these elements to abandoned industrial archeology, improving the hiking trails and the port.
- The REDEVELOPMENT of abandoned industries, historical heritage and high-potential areas such as the coastal landscape that can stimulate the economy in terms of historical tourism or autonomous activities (by encouraging the number of both internal and external investors);The target is to make them become great losir places for the people of the city and great touristic attractions if they are integrated into a green system.
- The area also has potential thanks to its GREEN SPACES consisting of cliffs, heights, sandy beaches that represent a uniqueness of the landscape and a place that increases the healthiness of the citizens.The target is to create a green system in order to protect the flora and fauna by the illegal construction.
These important elements of the green-blue infrastructure are constantly evolving because of the human intervention and also the urbanization causing in more cases the pollution of the environment. This and other risks have consequences on all areas of intervention as well as a possible negative effect may be due to the loss of biodiversity, as well as the risk of increasing the number of tourists can negatively affect the pollution environment.
B.4 Theory reflection
- Please reflect the assessment and evaluation methods used based on at least three readings
- Did you encounter limitations'
- The objective of the mapping phase was to highlight some problematic aspects of the studied area and at the same time to highlight the key elements that deserve to be developed and strengthened for a better functioning of the area and for improving the quality of the landscape. Mapping subjects have also been chosen in conjunction with the set of objectives and priorities. The establishment of these objectives was achieved in order to finally obtain a strong identity image of the studied area, highlighting the natural elements, the landscape, the existing ecosystem and the cultural treasure of the old city.
- Regarding the encountered limitation during the analysis and synthesis process, it can be affirmed that finding information about the physical state of the monuments and the built heritage has been a challenge. There is no information about the important buildings from Rione Terra area in terms of condition and usage, and also we couldn’t find any list or database about this subject.
Phase C – Strategy and Master Plan
C.1 Goal Setting
- Define strategic planning objectives based on the evaluation findings
- Link back to your original targets from section one and the Development Goals
- 150 words text contribution
C.2 Spatial Strategy and Transect
- translate your strategic goals into a vision
- develop a spatial translation of your vision
- exemplify your vision in the form of a transect with concrete interventions
- add map(s) and visualizations
- Your case spatial translaton vision.jpg
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- Your case transect.jpg
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- Your case transect detail1.jpg
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- Your case transect detail2.jpg
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C.3 From Theory of Change to Implementation
- For implementing your vision: Which partnerships are needed? Which governance model is required?
- Who needs to act and how? Draw and explain a change/process model/timeline
- Which resources are needed? On which assets can you build?
- add 150 words text and visuals
- Your case spatial your governance model.jpg
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- Your case spatial your process model.jpg
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- give a full list of the references you have used for this section
D. Process Reflection
- Reflect in your intercultural and interdisciplinary team on the outcomes of your study
- Which limitations were you facing?
- What have you learnt from each other?
- What would you do differently next time?
- You can also use diagrams/visuals
- 250 words text