Eforie Nord-23 August

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Area Z4 Eforie Nord-23 August
Place Eforie
Country Romania
Topics Coastal Line study of Eforie Nord to 23 August
Author(s) Ionut-Marian BRATOSIN;Ana-Maria MOTOC;Ana-Maria MATEI;Lavinia Denisa LAZARICA
Eforie 0271-min.JPG


  • The Black Sea coast is the most important tourist area in Romania, considering the large number of Romanian and foreign tourists. Two of the most popular Black Sea resorts are Eforie Nord and Costinesti (Youth resort). In the area of Eforie resort there is also the Lake Techirghiol (the largest saline lake in Romania) recognized for the therapeutic qualities of the mud and for the diversity of bird species within the lake, which is included as a protected area.
  • Format: 3-4 sentences

Location and scope

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A Landscape System Analysis

A.1 Landscape layers and their system context

Geomorphology, landscape units and coastal typology

  • The studied sector between Eforie Nord and August 23 is a relatively high shoreline, loess-shaped and open beaches, often protected by the dike system, arranged for tourist purposes. Situated at 15-500 m from the shoreline, the cliff has heights between 20-50m and is frequently interrupted by limanas, with the obvious tendency to withdraw through the marine abrasion process. The cliffs and beaches are composed of horizontal limestone layers in the Sarmatian Miocene, forming the rocky promontories, covered with thick layers of quaternary loess of winds during the glacial periods of the past two million years, and heavily eroded in warmer interglacial phases.

Land use

23 August – Originally called Tatlâgeac, at the end of 19th century, the commune had a population of nearly 570 inhabitants. After the establishment of the Communist regime, the name of the commune was changed to 23 August. Nowadays, its population reaches around 5500 inhabitants.

Costinești – Back in the Middle Ages, fishermen and shepherds were the main inhabitants of the commune. Today, Costinești is known for tourism, especially through its student camps.

Eforie – It is a city composed of two villages, Eforie Sud and Eforie Nord. Eforie was founded in the 19th century and it is known for being a balneotherapy resort.

Techirghiol – Founded as well in the 19th century, Techirghiol developed during the years as a spa town, known especially for Lake Techirghiol. It is famous among tourists due to its therapeutic mud, which is used for different procedures such as wraps or massage.

On our studied territory there are different uses of the area, housing, tourism and agriculture being the most important. Besides them, there are other activities, such as: sport fishing, agriculture, harbor (Eforie Nord), industry, services or recreation (loisir). Regarding the transport infrastructure, it includes: national and communal roads, railways and Tuzla Aerodrome.

Considering the last years, there are no important changes in the land use, even though the studied area consists of some important seaside resorts in Romania. So it is more likely for the main activities of the area to remain the same in the near future, the only change of the land use would be probably because of the tourists, leading to a development of the hotel facilities or transport network.

Green/blue infrastructure

The most dominant green/blue infrastructure in our studied territory is by far the protected area of Lake Techirghiol. Besides it, there can be found various areas with major potential elements of green/blue infrastructure network, namely: the sea, three small lakes and the enormous agriculture fields.

As there is no extreme pressure on the land by different investors and the main potential element of this infrastructure is as well strictly protected, the risk of losing these significant elements is extremely low.

Actors and stakeholders

The area is influenced by various actors, as it is composed of more localities, as well as contains a series of distinct elements that influence the development of the area. Therefore, we can distinguish 7 categories of stakeholders, as follows:

  • Authorities – on a local, regional (judetene) and national level, which deal with the administrative aspects of the cities and villages in the study area
  • ROWATER – The National Administration “Romanian Waters” (Administratia Nationala Apele Romane)
  • NGOs – MARE NOSTRUM, SOR – The Romanian Ornithological Society, as well as different NGOs preoccupied with keeping the Black Sea and Techirghiol Lake clean and interested in the well-being of those areas
  • Locals – from all cities and municipalities in the study area
  • Tourists – from all over Romania and from foreign countries
  • Economic agents – owners of restaurants, hotels, clubs etc., as well as their employees
  • Private investors – especially the ones involved in developing new residential areas along the shoreline of the Black Sea

The impact on the study area, as well as the level to which they are affected differs from one actor to another, depending on their interest zone. Thus, we have actors with a high level of impact on the site, but who are not very affected – such as the authorities or the private investors; on the other side we have actors with a reduced impact power, but who are highly affected by the changes in the area – such as the locals. The way in which the stakeholders affect and are affected, in the case of Eforie – 23 August area, is shown in the power map below.

Sacred spaces and heritage

Eforie has been known as “The City Between the Waters” (“Orașul dintre ape”) due to its location, the city being situated in between the Black Sea and the Techirghiol Lake. The latter is one of the most popular places in our study area, best known for its therapeutic mud which helps with the treatment of multiple diseases, especially the rheumatic ones. In the Techirghiol resort there are treatment spas, along with residential centers, attracting a lot of users and tourists from all around Romania. The most popular is the SPA Sanatorium Efosan, situated in Eforie Nord. Other than the therapeutic mud, Techirghiol is also known for being the biggest saline lake in Romania (1.304 ha), holding over 124 species of birds, some of which considered endangered. For some of these species, as well as for being the biggest winter quarter in the south-eastern part of Romania, the lake has been designated a Natura 2000 site in 2007, as well as a Ramsar site in 2006 (for the red breasted goose).

St. Mary Monastery (“Mânăstirea Sfânta Maria”) is one of the oldest churches in Eforie Nord – 23 August area, dating back to the XVII century, being considered a historical monument. The ensemble attracts tourists, as well as other members of the Orthdox clergy. Beside this, all the villages in our area have their own church, which hold a cultural and sentimental value for the locals.

A less-known, but important part of this area’s heritage is the historical findings from Tuzla village, where traces of primitive living have been found. Those were situated in the Stratonis settlement, which dates back to the III century AD and represented pottery from that period, decorated with various ornaments. Another part of its heritage is marked by the wrecked ship in Costinești, found close to the shoreline of the Black Sea. The ship is of Greek origins and has been here since the 60s and is very popular among tourists, as well as a well-known spot for taking pictures. Along the years, it became a kind of tradition to take pictures with the ship, not only for the tourists, but also for the locals who sometimes use it on souvenirs such as magnets and postcards.

Visual appearance and landscape narrative

  • Which elements are essential for the landscape character?
  • Has the landscape been painted or otherwise depicted, when and whom? Which elements are essential?
  • Which narratives exist? Who has written about this landscape or depicted it in some way?
  • You can add text and images

A.2 Summary of you landscape system analysis and your development Targets

The Eforie-23 August study area is marked by an important natural habitat (Techirghiol Lake), as well as by its typology, having different developed areas, from settlements found between Techirghiol Lake and the Black Sea to settlement isolated from the shoreline. The coast is just punctually accessible, but has a high potential of development in a sustainable way. The general character of the area is a touristic and balneal one, with the economic focus being on the former. There are two cities (Techirghiol and Eforie) and a village (Costinești) that are the most popular, the other localities holding a much rather local character, but having a great development potential.

Linking our case study to the Sustainable Development Goals projected by UN, we can affirm that at least four of those goals are at risk:

  • 11. Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable – guiding development in consideration to this goal would eliminate the discrepancies between local cities and villages, especially between the ones on the coast and the ones with indirect access to the shoreline; constructing the area in a sustainable way will further increase the chances of the natural habitats to be preserved and protected and to provide a high-level of living for both citizens and tourists.
  • 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts – this goals would assure a coherent development of the coastline from Eforie Nord to 23 August, as well as help protect the endangered species found at Techirghiol Lake; even if nowadays the impact is not highly visible for everyone in the area, the risks are there and a planning for future approach is much needed in our case.
  • 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources – pollution is a risk factor for our study area, mostly carried out by touristic activities, as well as the tourists themselves; this affects the Black Sea directly, especially through waste left out on the shoreline or in the water directly and actions need to be taken in order to preserve the species which are living in the sea, as well as the birds who occasionally land on the shoreline.
  • 17. Revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development – a good cooperation between stakeholders will direct the actions toward a good development for the area, but for Eforie – 23 August area this is not the case for now, having different authorities handling different neighboring areas or areas of the same typology (areas on the same shoreline – in our case the Black Sea one).

Taking into account the pressures the area faces and the potential it has, we developed a hypothesis for our site, hoping it can be implemented in the future. Therefore, we believe in a sustainable and efficient development of the coast line, having an increase in the green/blue infrastructure along the coast, as well as promoting the existing typology (especially the cliffs), while at the same time aiming for an ecological tourism.

A.3 Theory reflection

  • Reflect on at least three international policy documents in relation to their local landscape case
  • choose one international, one European and one national document
  • You can choose references from our reading list
  • Scope: 250 words

A.4 References

Phase B: Landscape Evaluation and Assessment

B.1 Assessment Strategy

  • Based on the hypothesis derived from your previous landscape systems analysis you are now asked to define the goals for assessing the landscape. Your assessment is the basis for evaluating the landscape status.
  • Which elements and phenomena need to be mapped, why and how?
  • This a text contribution, max 250 words

B.2 Mapping

  • As defined by your assessment strategy you conduct the mapping and present your findings here
  • As a minimum, at least three different themes need to be mapped, you may choose more if needed

B.3 Problem definition and priority setting

  • Give a summary of the major findings of your mapping process, what are the problems/potentials identified?
  • Draw a problems/potentials map
  • Set priorities for the most relevant issues

B.4 Theory reflection

  • Please reflect the assessment and evaluation methods used based on at least three readings
  • Did you encounter limitations'
  • 200 words test contribution

B.5 References

  • give a full list of the references you have used for this section

Phase C – Strategy and Master Plan

C.1 Goal Setting

  • Define strategic planning objectives based on the evaluation findings
  • Link back to your original targets from section one and the Development Goals
  • 150 words text contribution

C.2 Spatial Strategy and Transect

  • translate your strategic goals into a vision
  • develop a spatial translation of your vision
  • exemplify your vision in the form of a transect with concrete interventions
  • add map(s) and visualizations

C.3 From Theory of Change to Implementation

  • For implementing your vision: Which partnerships are needed? Which governance model is required?
  • Who needs to act and how? Draw and explain a change/process model/timeline
  • Which resources are needed? On which assets can you build?
  • add 150 words text and visuals

C.4 References

  • give a full list of the references you have used for this section

D. Process Reflection

  • Reflect in your intercultural and interdisciplinary team on the outcomes of your study
  • Which limitations were you facing?
  • What have you learnt from each other?
  • What would you do differently next time?
  • You can also use diagrams/visuals
  • 250 words text