- Blended Learning
- The range of possibilities presented by combining Internet and digital media with established classroom forms that require the physical co‐presence of teacher and students.
- This theory assumes that there is no objective way of representing reality. Instead, there are as many constructions of reality as there are people in the world. In a learning context this means: both learners and teachers are constantly constructing realities, meanings and concepts. There can be communication and exchange about these constructions but there is no final model that could be transferred from a sender to a receiver. A starting point is that the individual mind decides whether knowledge is viable or not. The precondition for viability is the possibility to connect new knowledge to existing mental concepts. Observation, differentiation and individual responsibility are thus crucial for the success of constructivist learning. In this context, the main role of the teacher is to offer opportunities for authentic encounter, diversity experience, discourse, communication and mutual awareness in order to facilitate and stimulate constructivist learning processes (Fetzer, 2013). The approach of interaction-based constructivism provides a practical model for specifying learning processes. There are three main phases of knowledge processing: reconstruction, construction and deconstruction.
- A dynamic combination of attributes - with respect to knowledge and its application, to attitudes and responsibilities - that describe the LEARNING OUTCOMES of an educational programme, or how learners are able to perform at the end of an educational process. These consist of subject-area related competences (specific to a field of study) and generic competences (common to any degree course). The European Qualifications Framework describes competence in terms of responsibility and autonomy. It refers to the proven ability to use knowledge, skills and personal, social and/ or methodological abilities, in work or study situations and in professional and personal development.
- Short full time course of one to four weeks concentrating on a particular topic. It may take place at another institution or in a summer school.
European Credit Transfer System
- A system for increasing the transparency of educational systems and facilitating the mobility of students across Europe through credit transfer. It is based on the general assumption that the global workload of an academic year of study is equal to 60 credits. The 60 credits are then allocated to course units to describe the proportion of the student workload required to achieve the related LEARNING OUTCOMES. Credit transfer is guaranteed by explicit agreements among the home institution, the host institution and the mobile student.
- SWOT Analysis
- Situation analysis in which internal strengths and weaknesses of an organization, and external opportunities and threats faced by it are closely examined to chart a strategy. SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (see also PEST analysis).
- PEST Analysis
- A type of situation analysis in which political-legal (government stability, spending, taxation), economic (inflation, interest rates, unemployment), socio-cultural (demographics, education, income distribution), and technological (knowledge generation, conversion of discoveries into products, rates of obsolescence) factors are examined to chart an organization's long-term plans (see also SWOT analysis).
- A causal framework for describing the interactions between society and the environment: Human impact on the environment and vice versa because of the interdependence of the components. This framework has been adopted by the European Environment Agency. The components of this model are: Driving forces: e.g. industry, tourism, economic growth; Pressures: e.g. pollution, land-use change, population growth; States : e.g. water quality, soil quality, air quality, habitat, vegetation; Impacts : e.g. ill public health, habitat fragmentation, economic crisis, environmental damage, biodiversity loss; and Responses : e.g. taxes, environmental laws
- Coastal Landscapes
- “An area of sea, coastline and land, as perceived by people, whose character results from the actions and interactions of land with sea, by natural and/or human factors.” (seascape)
”(…) areas of continuous character under natural, cultural/social, and perceptual/aesthetic factors” European Landscape Convention (Council of Europe, 2000).
” coastal zones are the common natural and cultural heritage of the peoples living there and that they should be preserved and judiciously used for the benefit of present and future generations” Protocol on integrated coastal zones. Management in the Mediterranean (Brussels, 2008)
coastal areas (…) as ecosystems’ providers of significant resources for transport, food security, economic prosperity, ecosystem services and resilience”
- Rural Landscapes
”Rural landscapes are a vital component of the heritage of humanity. They are also one of the most common types of continuing cultural landscapes. There is a great diversity of rural landscapes around the world that represent cultures and cultural traditions… They provide multiple economic and social benefits, multifunctionality, cultural support and ecosystem services for human societies”. ”Rural landscapes are terrestrial and aquatic areas co-produced by human-nature interaction and within which renewable natural resources are produced, such as food and/or raw materials. At the same time rural areas have cultural meanings attributed to them by people and communities”.
”The rural landscape is a renewable resource, changing as a result of different production measures”
”a spatial phenomenon that extends across regions, landscapes, natural areas, agricultural land, villages and other larger urban centres, pockets of industrialization and regional centres. It encompasses a diverse and complex economic and social fabric. It is the home of a great wealth of natural and cultural resources and traditions. It is becoming more important as a place for relaxation and leisure activities”.
Rural areas - our link to the land, European Commission, 1994 (Europe 2000+)
”Agriculture and forestry are the main caretakers of rural landscapes. Its continued usage in a well-adjusted way is a prerequisite for maintaining its environmental worth”.
Rural areas - our link to the land, European Commission, 1997
- Productive Landscapes
”Productive landscapes are part of a resilient urban matrix, a fundamental issue due to natural and human caused disasters, economic and ecological crises, etc. Integrating productivity in cities via landscape and planning tools and developing a sustainable infrastructure have a role in creating resilient cities. Urban agriculture is one of the major components of productive landscapes. Pioneering models of productive landscapes and urban agriculture go back to 19th century with the works of Ebenezer Howard, Le Corbusier, Frank Lloyd Right, and Ian McHarg”
”Biodiverse production landscapes and seascapes that lie outside the protected area estate provide people with goods and services like food, pollination services, water, wood, energy and minerals. The use of natural resources in these landscapes and seascapes must be done sustainably in order to maintain biodiversity and the ecosystem goods and services it provides to society”.
”Continuous productive urban landscape (CPUL) is an urban design concept integrating food growing into the design of cities through joining together existing open space and disused sites into a linear landscape that connects to the countryside. The term was first used by Bohn & Viljoen Architects in 2004 at a time when making the connection between food and the city was unusual”
'Review of Foodprint symposium' in, VOLUME magazine blog, (July 2009)
- Blue and Green Infrastructure
”Green infrastructure is a strategically planned network of natural and semi-natural areas with other environmental features designed and managed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services such as water purification, air quality, space for recreation and climate mitigation and adaptation. This network of green (land) and blue (water) spaces can improve environmental conditions and therefore citizens' health and quality of life. It also supports a green economy, creates job opportunities and enhances biodiversity. The Natura 2000 network constitutes the backbone of the EU green infrastructure.
Green infrastructure planning is a successfully tested tool to provide environmental, economic and social benefits through natural solutions. In many cases, it can reduce dependence on 'grey' infrastructure that can be damaging to the environment and biodiversity, and often more expensive to build and maintain. The European Commission has developed a Green Infrastructure Strategy. This strategy aims to ensure that the protection, restoration, creation and enhancement of green infrastructure become an integral part of spatial planning and territorial development whenever it offers a better alternative, or is complementary, to standard grey choices”.
”Blue infrastructure refers to water elements, like rivers, canals, ponds, wetlands, floodplains, water treatment facilities, etc. Green infrastructure refers to trees, lawns, hedgerows, parks, fields, forests, etc. These terms come from urban planning and land-use planning.Blue-Green Infrastructure can also specifically refer to an urban planning approach in which design of naturalistic or completely artificial infrastructures in the city is intended to allow the whole water cycle to occur within the city. This can improve the delivery of water-related ecosystem services (reducing pollution in the air, irrigating parks, providing local drinking water), as well as preventing harms like flooding and spread of contaminants (e.g. from cars)”.
”Waterfronts are defined by their nodal position between local and global scales. Scale is the processes of negotiation and compromise; it is contested and fought over, the temporary, the transient, sometimes fragile, sometimes stable outcome of political tension”
(Randles and Dicken, 2004, 2012, in ”Transforming Urban Waterfronts: Fixity and Flow” editors: Gene Desfor, Jennefer Laidley, Quentin Stevens, Dirk Schubert)
”Historically, waterfront developments have undergone various stages of development initiatives and become the most challenging tasks for planners and urban designers nowadays. It reflected a dynamic natural resources with special characteristics and regarded as the most important factors that influenced the growth and image of the cities and had a significant impact on urbanization and modernization of the most cities in the near future”.
Al-Shams, A. R., et al, ”Waterfront Development within the Urban Design and Public Space Framework in Malaysia”, in Asian Social Science; Vol. 9, No. 10; 2013
A transect, in its origins (Von Humboldt 1790), is a geographical cross-section of a region used to reveal a sequence of environments. Originally, it was used to analyze natural ecologies, showing varying characteristics through different zones such as shores, wetlands, plains, and uplands. For human environments, such a cross-section can be used to identify a set of habitats that vary by their level and intensity of urban character, a continuum that ranges from rural to urban. In Transect planning, this range of environments is the basis for organizing the components of urbanization: building, lot, land use, street, and all of the other physical elements of the human habitat.
The valley section is a term invented by Patrick Geddes and described in his book, “The valley section from hills to sea.” (New York City, 1923) The valley section depicts an ideal regional-urban condition, whereas the Notation of Life embodies concrete architectural proposals on how to realise that ideal condition. Geddes expresses in the valley region that Enlightenment theory of social evolution describes mankind’s development through the four stages of hunting, pastoral, and agriculture toward commercial societies. The valley section is a longitudinal section which begins high up in the mountains and then follows the course of a river down the mountains and through a plain toward its estuary at the coast. (https://bit.ly/2YWqQid, accessed on the 4th of July 2020)
- Term to define
- Integrated Coastal Management
- Integrated Planning
- Landscape Planning
- Landscape Policies
- Participatory Planning
- Physical Planning
- Spatial Planning
- Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment
- Strategic Planning
- Strategy Implementation
- Urban Design