Southern Coast of the Caspian Sea

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Area Southern Coast of the Caspian Sea, Iran
Place Coastal Boulevard of Anzali Harbor
Country Iran
Topics Psychological Security
Author(s) Mohamadreza, Negar, Amirhossein, Haniyeh
Presentation11024px-Bolvare Bandar-e Anzali.jpg


What make the Coastal Boulevard (promenade) of Anzali[1] Port interesting to work as case study are its history, high use status by public and convenient accessibility from downtown for visitors of this coastal town to relax and enjoy the landscape. Unfortunately, despite all these significant positive aspects, lack of proper psychological security from the various points of views is highly perceived for this recreational built landscape!

Location and scope

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A Landscape System Analysis

A.1 Landscape layers and their system context

Geomorphology, landscape units and coastal typology

Land use

Regarding the current land use status, It is obvious that the promenade itself has a recreational land use as the main function but the predominate land use of its surrounding displayed in red and brown colours are commercial and residential. It should be mentioned that the residential land uses in brown have the front facades/the first line of buildings as commercial and the inner layers as residential, that’s why it has been categorized as residential and mixed land use.

Concerning the evolution story of this landscape, it can be divided before and after appearance of breakwaters. Based on the historical books and photos, this waterfront was mainly a place for fishers to go for fishing, so the majority of land use was for fishers’ housing. After building the breakwaters the fishing harbour turned to a governmental commercial harbour which had a significant impact on changing the land use of its surroundings. Now the major land use can be ranked as commercial. It is believed if the current situation continues, high rise buildings with commercial use would eat the remained residential and recreational lands.

Green/blue infrastructure

Talking about the green and blue infrastructure, as we all know they work as a network to benefit both human and nature. Naming some tangible ones; harbor and water breaks can be classified as blue infrastructures and the promenade itself represents the green one. The benefits from this network are clearly boosted trade, economic opportunities, transportation, managed storms, biodiversity, recreational activities, cleaner air, decreased urban heat and etc.

Actors and stakeholders

In this part we have illustrated three circle in three different color with the degree of importance from low to high and also with three powers that they are not in a same situation in relation to our Coastal landscape. For example municipality and local coastal users with different powers but they are locating in the same area because they have both high influence in relation to our coastal landscape. The second power which including citizens, tourist, local markets and fishery they all are located in medium part with medium influence to our landscape. And the other elements like large oil and gas companies, Customs duties, merchants or traders they have high power but our landscape is not affected by them in a high influence.

Sacred spaces and heritage

Visual appearance and landscape narrative

A.2 Summary of you landscape system analysis and your development Targets

A.3 Theory reflection

National policy:

The Comprehensive integrated coastal zone management plan in Iran specifics the following priority goals according to the ICZM (Integrated Coastal Zone Management):

•Over-exploitation of resources Natural including aquatic animals, forests

•Environmental pollution resulting from Human activities, tourism and so on Change water level •Erosion and damage to lines Coastal and its infrastructure

•No proper definition of private and public ownership of the coastal strip

•Lack of public access to the coastal strip

•Unbalanced construction in the coastal strip

International policy: (International Guidelines on Urban and Regional Planning)

According to the Urban and Territorial Planning and Social Development regarding to our coastal region the following regulations in Local authorities have relation to our issue and it should be considered.

Local authorities:

•Promote social and spatial integration and inclusion, particularly through improved access to all parts of the city and territory, as every inhabitant (including migrant workers and displaced people) should have the ability to enjoy the city, its socioeconomic opportunities, urban services and public spaces, and to contribute to its social and cultural life

•Provide good quality public spaces, improve and revitalize existing public spaces, such as squares, streets, green areas and sports complexes, and make them safer, in line with the needs and perspectives of women, men, girls and boys, and fully accessible to all. It should be taken into account that those places constitute an indispensable platform for vibrant and inclusive city life and are a basis for infrastructure development

•Improve urban safety, particularly for women, youth, the elderly, the disabled and any vulnerable groups, as a factor of security, justice and social cohesion;

•Promote and ensure gender equality in the design, production and use of urban spaces and services by identifying the specific needs of women and men, girls and boys

A.4 References

UN HABITAT. International Guidelines on Urban and Regional Planning (from reading list)

Comprehensive integrated coastal zone management plan in Iran 32800.Pdf

Phase B: Landscape Evaluation and Assessment

B.1 Assessment Strategy

To evaluate the Psychological Security as the hypotheses perceived in the first phase, a chart of three main themes with sub-factors has been developed based on the Safety and Security chapter of BlueHealth Environmental Assessment Tool guide [2].

Perceptual: this theme includes all the factors related to the sense which are interpretable not tangible directly; lightening, sense of general security, demographic diversity, visual quality, Olfaction quality and noise pollution.

Practical: this theme includes the functionality of all existing physical elements; vegetation cover, safeguarding, pedestrianization and accessibility.

Physical: this theme includes the needed physical elements for the landscape; furniture and essential facilities.

All three themes have been mapped to include the most important factors in each theme. Due to the limitation in time of assessments, comparative and descriptive tools as the two most useful strategies have been chosen to apply for.

B.2 Mapping

  • As defined by your assessment strategy you conduct the mapping and present your findings here
  • As a minimum, at least three different themes need to be mapped, you may choose more if needed

B.3 Problem definition and priority setting

Based on our assessment findings, we have defined the goals which help us in the planning and design process. The goals are also defined based on the 3 categories that we have done the analysis on maps. Besides we have considered the time and would like to achieve the goals in a period of short, mid and long terms. By the planning and future design that we would want to apply, we would like to achieve a better lightening system, making a safer place and by that providing a pleasant place. These are the elements that should be solved at an early stage of our design process. The next step would be improving the green areas, increasing the safety element, enhancing the different networks of pedestrian and bicycle within and through the context. The long-term goals would be the future renovation and add more facilities to the site which is much easier to achieve in the last stage.

B.4 Theory reflection

As the reflection of our work so far , the limitations that we have encountered during the assessment phase and the significance of the readings and the lectures that we have got till now. Since that our case study location is in Iran and we all are living in Germany, we could not have the access directly to the site and have the active observation. So we had to search online inorder to get the data, but in some cases we were not sure about the last updated time of the information.Also we have had some difficulties with finding old literature and photos about the site. However one of the most important reason was the limited time .Since our topic is related to different majors specially psychology , we had to have multidisciplinary knowledge that we as architects and landscape architects need to study more about other be able to have a better understanding of the topic. Besides since our topic is a unique topic , no one before did the similar analysis that we could use. The major insights that we got from the readings and lectures is the Blue Health environmental assessment that lead us to the map analyses that we have done by applying a mixed use of Descriptive & Comparative assessments.

B.5 References

  • give a full list of the references you have used for this section

BlueHealth Environmental Assessment Tool guide:

Edinburgh Waterfront Promenade, Design Code:

The Planting Design Handbook, Second Edition, by Nick Robinson

Site Planning and Design Handbook, Second Edition, by Thomas H. Russ:

Phase C – Strategy and Master Plan

C.1 Goal Setting

Following the assessments from the previous phase, improving the perceptual, practical and physical aspects as the main related themes of psychological security and safety challenges has been defined as goal for this phase. More specifically, the principles of each factor have been optimized within the proposals as an intervention in different spots which were recognized from the former phase. Due to the limitation of time and access to the site, only the main principles in each theme have been chosen to be improved. It is expected these proposals altogether can remarkably enhance the psychological security for the users of this promenade. Implementing these proposals has different levels of support for some sustainable development goals (SDGs) within this small scale coastal landscape. It can provide strong supports on goals like good health and well-being for people as Goal 3 and some targets within the Goal 11 as Sustainable Cities and Communities while goals 15 and 8 have the weaker support from our strategy.

C.2 Spatial Strategy and Transect

  • translate your strategic goals into a vision
  • develop a spatial translation of your vision
  • exemplify your vision in the form of a transect with concrete interventions
  • add map(s) and visualizations

C.3 From Theory of Change to Implementation

  • From the actors and managers of the land to the ones who are directly (neighbours) and indirectly (interest groups) affected by the land use decision-making, landscape management and its valorisation takes place within a policy arena with a high diversity of stakeholders. They cover primary (individuals and private bodies of the local and farming community) and secondary types of stakeholders (groups and organisations), such as public and sectorial bodies, trusts, boards. Stakeholders can be either directly affected by landscape management (mainly private bodies) or they interest is affected (mainly groups and organizations).The different actors and stakeholders with their specific knowledge and information base as well as their values, interests and preferences represent an important factor in the mechanism between landscape policy, landscape management and its socio-economic valorisation.

C.4 References

  • give a full list of the references you have used for this section

Sustainable Development Goals

Sustainable Development Goals, Goal 11 Targets

LAWwaterfront Design Guidelines 2011

How to Plant Balled and Burlapped Trees

The Planting Design Handbook, Second Edition, by Nick Robinson

Site Planning and Design Handbook, Second Edition, by Thomas H. Russ

Hein, L., van Koppen, K., de Groot, R.S., van Ierland, E.C. (2006). Spatial scales, stakeholders and the valuation of ecosystem services. Ecological Economics 57: 209-228.

Reed, M.S. (2008). Stakeholder participation for environmental management: A literature review. Biological Conservation 141: 2417-2431.

Rogge E., Dessein, J., Gulinck,H. (2011). Stakeholders perception of attitudes towards major landscape changes held by the public: The case of greenhouse clusters in Flanders. Land Use Policy 28, 334-342.

D. Process Reflection

Some of the limitations that the group faced during the making of the assignment for this seminar would include the inability of conducting live field observations due to location of the project in another country, which also resulted with the uncertainty of having the latest updated data and having a lack of access to some older documents, such as historical photos and books related to the project theme, which could have aided in the assessment and the planning process. Also, there were difficulties with arranging meetings at times due to variety of reasons.

The goals and finally the outcomes within the group work that have been set up and achieved to stimulate a more focused and locally oriented planning process would be having a highly critical thinking approach towards all the problems located in the area, as well as al the possibly proposed solutions, to come up with the best method of improving the area. Furthermore, narrowing the solutions to the scale of the project by conducting focused discussions oriented on the solutions appropriate to the subject extent. Lastly to keep an open mind and avoid blind following of the pre-set processes which may limit the creativity in coming up with the optimal solutions for the area.

In the future projects it would be desirable to always aim for a multidisciplinary, and possibly multicultural, team, as it always brings fresh aspects and new ideas which enrichen the final product. On top of that, if possible, it should be aimed at gathering team members which have similar working times, or are at least able to compromise to some extent, and the same goals of participation in the project.